Sometimes to resolve the ambiguity it helps to stop thinking about what is absolutely correct, and go with the flow of what looks accepted or expected.
And keep taking practice tests, that's the resource that I would advise.
This looks a ways up in the crown, on a semimature tree. Rot from excessively large cuts could be a bigger issue for structure than eliminating included bark and acute angles. These are so common on those maples, maybe eliminating them is not a realistic objective.
Based on those images, I...
First, those cuts look like removal cuts. A reduction cut would be further out. Since there is no collar on codoms, what is the advantage of cutting that far back? ATH and VB are right on this.
P.S. Ignore the 1/3 rule.
Second, different general have different architecture. Removal cuts on...
Internal decay is a bugaboo, a boogeyman, a phantom of the operation of fearmongering.
Living wood is sapwood. A mature tree needs about 4" or so, give or take.
Heartwood is mostly dead cells caked with waste products. When trees lose heartwood, they are flushing their toilets. Here are 4...
Definitely woody matter belongs on the surface. like anything you cannot break up with your fingers.
Think about what happens in nature.
What makes you think there is extensive decay? Those types of wounds often have no or very little decay, and the woundwood can more than make up for it in...
Diagnose first. The big infections seem old--see the woundwood on the edges?
Bleeding lesions should be cleaned and heated. phosphite drench.
No reason to reduce load (yet)--no strength loss observable.
I hope the cedar mulch was not added to the soil.
"I can’t help but notice the large...
If you put a bull rope in that tree and tried to pull it over with your truck, you would have failed.
These 4 trees below were retained in high-target locations. Ants, concrete? Paranoia strikes deep...
Absolutely they can be reinvigorated. Topdressing just scratches the surface lol of what the soil needs. I often fracture subsoil 2'+ deep and blast in compost etc. to deepen soil volume and increase drainage.
Well thanks; tons of respect for Ed with young trees (esp. live oaks!) and Jim with planting.
Save the day lol; too often the day is about done when I get to a tree! But we do what we can.
Daniel's skeptical but he'sgot a ton of pruning stuff on his youtube channel; judge for yourself.
Nick, I've seen Lindsey's stuff presented in person as well as this webinar. I guess my fundamental issue is the approach to pruning's purpose being to solve problems. Consistent with defect-oriented TRAQ assessments, instead of objective inspections. I look at pruning as building structure...